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Categories:      7. Obchod s lidmi
BookID:      473
Authors:      Patricía Trindade Maranhão Costa
ISBN-10(13):      978-92-2-122293-4
Publisher:      International Labour Office (ILO)
Publication date:      2009
Number of pages:      122
Language:      English
Price:      0.00
Rating:      0 
Picture:      cover

For some fifteen years, since a new inter-ministerial body was created in 1995 to coordinate action against forced labour, Brazil has been addressing the problem with vigour and determination. It has done so in many ways, involving different government agencies, employers’ and workers’ organizations, civil society, the media, academic organizations and others. Many of the measures taken are creative and unique, reflecting the need for extraordinary steps to deal with a severe human rights problem that can be difficult to identify, and even more difficult to punish through effective law enforcement in remote areas. Examples of these measures include: the creation of the National Commission to Eradicate Slave Labour (CONATRAE), responsible for the formulation and monitoring of the First and Second National Plans to prevent and eradicate forced labour; the creation of the Special Mobile Inspection Group under the Ministry of Labour, combining the efforts of specially trained and equipped labour inspectors and police officers; the establishment of labour courts in the areas most affected by forced labour; the government's ‘dirty list’, regularly updated, which names and shames those enterprises found to be employing forced labour; and the National Pact for the Eradication of Slave Labour, by which major companies not only commit to prevention and eradication of forced labour within their own organizations and their supply chains, but also agree to be monitored. Brazil has also developed perhaps the most effective media campaign in the world, amply supported by private contributions, to raise mass awareness of the problems caused by forced labour in the country the CONATRAE. The project has also assisted with the development of a database for the Labour Inspection Secretariat, the drafting of national plans of action against slave labour, training of the judiciary and law enforcement agents, and with outreach to State governments in those parts of Brazil where the incidence of forced labour is most severe. Although these initiatives are now widely known in Brazil, often receiving extensive media coverage, it is time to share the information with a global readership. In May 2009, the ILO released its third global report on forced labour. Entitled The Cost of Coercion, the report documents the serious cost – to humanity, to labour markets worldwide and particularly to affected workers and their families – of continuing problems with coercion, including debt bondage, which often results from abusive recruitment practices. The report also shows what can be done, through broad alliances involving various government agencies and civil society groups, to address the root causes of forced labour and to punish those persons responsible for its exaction. Like the previous report in 2005, the new ILO global report on forced labour draws extensively on experience and good practices in countries like Brazil. Moreover, the 2009 report reflects in depth on the challenges ahead, looking beyond the punishment of forced labour as a serious crime to address related aspects of labour exploitation that affects so many vulnerable workers in today’s global economy. As this report demonstrates, Brazil is also taking a lead in drawing the necessary attention to wider forms of labour exploitation, which can deprive the poorest and least protected workers of their right to live in dignity. The Brazilian concept of ‘slave labour’, while essentially based on the concept of forced labour as set out in ILO standards on the subject, also includes the notion of degrading conditions of work. The legal and policy framework seeks to sanction those employers who subject their workforce to degrading and unacceptable conditions, and also recognises the responsibility of public authorities to improve these conditions, as an integral part of the Brazil’s commitment to the Decent Work Agenda. The eradication of forced labour is indeed one of the main priorities of the National Decent Work Agenda, launched by the Brazilian government in 2006; as well as the two state-level Decent Work Agendas being developed and implemented in Bahia and Mato Grosso. Following these initiatives at the national level, Brazil has also indicated its support for improved action against forced labour throughout Latin America, sharing its own experience. A key example is the agreement between Brazil and Peru to promote exchange of experience between their labour inspectorates, with a particular focus on forced labour. An important manifestation of this commitment was a voluntary contribution to the ILO by Brazil in December 2008, for the promotion of the Decent Work Agenda and, in particular, the fight against forced labour in Latin America. The ILO vi Fighting Forced Labour: The example of Brazil looks forward to further cooperation with Brazil in strengthening its action against forced labour within the country, and to drawing on Brazilian experience to support its global efforts to tackle the problems. 


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